On November 5, 2007, the Open Handset Alliance, a consortium of technology companies including Google, device manufacturers such as HTC, Motorola and Samsung, wireless carriers such as Sprint and T-Mobile, and chipset makers such as Qualcomm and Texas Instruments, unveiled itself, with a goal to develop "the first truly open and comprehensive platform for mobile devices".

Within a year, the Open Handset Alliance faced two other open source competitors, the Symbian Foundation and the Li Mo Foundation, the latter also developing a Linux-based mobile operating system like Google.

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Perlman refused a stake in the company, and has stated "I did it because I believed in the thing, and I wanted to help Andy." At Google, the team led by Rubin developed a mobile device platform powered by the Linux kernel.

Google marketed the platform to handset makers and carriers on the promise of providing a flexible, upgradeable system.

From 2008 to 2013, Hugo Barra served as product spokesperson, representing Android at press conferences and Google I/O, Google’s annual developer-focused conference.

He left Google in August 2013 to join Chinese phone maker Xiaomi.

At its developer conference in May 2013, Google announced a special version of the Samsung Galaxy S4, where, instead of using Samsung's own Android customization, the phone ran "stock Android" and was promised to receive new system updates fast.

In 2015, Ars Technica wrote that "Earlier this week, the last of the Google Play edition Android phones in Google's online storefront were listed as "no longer available for sale"" and that "Now they're all gone, and it looks a whole lot like the program has wrapped up".

In addition, Google has further developed Android TV for televisions, Android Auto for cars, and Android Wear for wrist watches, each with a specialized user interface.

Variants of Android are also used on game consoles, digital cameras, PCs and other electronics.

Rubin had difficulty attracting investors early on, and Android was facing eviction from its office space.